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Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease refers to a state of irreversible kidney damage. The term can also be used to describe a decline in kidney functions that may lead to kidney failure. However, in clinical context the condition can be described using the terms chronic renal insufficiency or chronic renal failure. The two terms are used depending on the degree of kidney damage (National Kidney Foundation, 2012). This study is based on chronic kidney disease. The study describes the clinical presentation of the disease, diagnosis, implications for treatment, and the patient factors that may affect the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

Clinical Presentation

The most common clinical presentation for CKD is renal impairment which stems from different levels of renal insufficiency. Depending on the severity of the disease, renal failure may range from mild to chronic failure. The other clinical manifestation of the disease is chronic uremia, which is associated with chronic failure of the kidney. In addition to these conditions, the patient may exhibit other symptoms that include excess malnutrition, frequent vomiting, excess fluids in the lung that may require special medical attention, abnormal level of electrolyte in the body, encephalopathy, uremic neuropathy, and poor metabolic processes (Adams et al, 2012).

At the early stages, the patient experiences regular tiredness of the body, develops a poor appetite, urinates regularly, experiences decline in the level of concentration and develops sleeping problems. Within a period of three months, the level of nitrogen waste in the blood may become uncontrollable. Anemia is also common among the patients especially within the first 3 months.


Diagnosis of the disease involves glomerular filtration. In case the filtration does not take place at the normal rate, the kidney is considered to be affected by the disease (National Kidney Foundation, 2012). However, during the diagnosis it is important for the healthcare practitioner to assess the patient’s medical history and use information on age and sex. For instance, historical health conditions such as diabetes and anemia may interfere with the accuracy of the results. The age of the patient may also determine the effectiveness of the results. Elderly individuals may develop reduced kidney function due to their age and decline in the level of immunity (Sarafedis, 2008).

The other test that can be conducted to diagnose the disease is a urine test, which indicates the level of protein in the urine. The same case will also apply to diabetic patients. Biopsy of the kidney is another approach that can be used to diagnose the disease. The method is used to reveal any form of abnormality in the kidney tissues. Moreover, imaging tests may also be conducted to identify any form of obstructions in the kidney (Adams et al, 2012).

Treatment Options and Implications

Some of the drugs that can be prescribed in this case include Accupril, Atacand, Bystolic, and Crestor. Accupril and Atacand, have similar side effects which include headache, dry cough, dizziness, sleeping difficulties, tiredness. Bystolic may damage the muscles or cause muscle pains. Crestor may cause weight again, stomachache, dizziness, constipation and diarrhea. The treatment option for the disease should be aimed at reducing different aspects of the disease. For instance, to treat hypertension it is important to maintain good blood pressure by taking angiotensin drugs that reduce the blood pressure and the amount of protein in urine. However, angiotensin drugs cause dizziness and lack of concentration (Sarafedis, 2008).

Dialysis is another treatment method that can be used to treat the disease. It can be done using machine filters or catheter that absorbs waste materials through the abdominal cavity (National Kidney Foundation, 2012). The side effects of dialysis include nausea, headaches, and dizziness. The other treatment method is the use of diuretic treatment, which reduces the level of potassium in the blood. The patient should also avoid particular foods that are rich in potassium. The effects of diuretics include metabolic problems, increase urination, and hypovolemia. Anemia treatment should also be exercised. The patient can be treated with particular drugs that enhance the production of red blood cells or iron supplements. The effects of iron supplements include constipation; diarrhea, and discomfort within the abdominal system.

Dietary restrictions may also be effective in the treatment of the disease. The increased amount of phosphate in the blood is associated with high blood pressure and obstruction of the kidney. The patient should also be encouraged to reduce cholesterol intake. Cholesterol medication should be administered to reduce heart infection and control blood pressure (National Kidney Foundation, 2012).

Patient Factors

Different patient factors may affect the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. For instance, patient’s medical history may determine the type of medication that should be used for the treatment. Patients who suffer from diseases that are related to the condition such as diabetes and heart disease may require special approaches during the diagnosis in order to obtain quality results. The other factor that may affect the diagnosis and treatment is age (Adams et al, 2012). Elderly patients may be difficult to diagnose due to reduced performance of most body organs. This is common in diagnostic methods such as ultrasound testing where elderly patients must undergo at least five cysts tests in order to determine the kidney sound. The patient’s level of compliance to the diagnosis and treatment measures is also important during the diagnosis. Compliance may be affected by other factors such as financial status and patient’s health behavior (Sarafedis, 2008).


Adams, D. De Jonge, R. Der Cammen, T. Zietse, R. & Hoorn, E. (2011). Acute kidney injury in patients presenting with Hyponatremial. Original Article,24(06), 749-755.

National Kidney Foundation. (2012). Chronic Kidney Disease. Web.

Sarafedis, P. (2008). Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in Chronic Kidney Disease. The American Journal of Medicine, 121(4), 332-340.

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StudyKraken. "Chronic Kidney Disease." August 22, 2022.


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