Neurology – A medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. It also covers the brain, spinal cord, and spinal cord injuries (SCI).
The vertebral body is the largest part of the vertebra and excessive compressive forces or normal compressive forces upon a weakened vertebral body can lead to fracture, as noted in many accident patients. These are complex conditions to diagnose and treat.
Neurologists have noted that cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in the cerebral veins is relatively uncommon but can be difficult to diagnose. This shows the need for a neurology department to have advanced equipment to detect and manage such complex cases. When the blood clot (thrombus) forms, fluid can no longer appropriately drain out of that region of the brain (Pressman, 2014).
An increasingly automated and mechanized health care system has challenged neurologists to integrate vast amounts of data that have a direct effect on patient risks and treatment and to develop systems that avoid medical errors and allocate resources appropriately (Griggs, Fontaine, & Sobue, 2011)
Neurologists must reaffirm the wisdom of clinical experience and judgment to inform their use of new technologies to enhance patient care and safety.
The need to eliminate errors has been critical when investing in myelin-related disorders, such as the Myelin Profect and multiple sclerosis (MS). For instance, in some cases, it could be difficult to tell whether myelin in the CNS is generally targeted or myelin in specific regions is affected. As a result, neurologists suspect demyelination of some motor neurons, or neurons related to the function of the visual cortex, particularly in alternating phases of relapsing and remission.
Patients should get the necessary education to understand their conditions well.
Orthopedics treats conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, including joints, ligaments, bones, muscles, tendons, and nerves.
The department handles limited cases of tarsal tunnel syndrome. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is an entrapment neuropathy of the tibial nerve or one of its branches as it passes through the tarsal tunnel. Physicians must recognize that compression of one of the distal branches of the nerve as they pass deep to the abductor hallucis muscle can produce symptoms similar to those caused by proximal compression within the tarsal tunnel.
The department also tries to arrange all cases with a C-arm need together to cut down on the X-ray time needed. Hence, physicians’ management systems can help in enhancing healthcare provision and reducing too many visits.
Its major challenges include:
- Rising costs of equipment
- Schedule management
- High costs of implants
In addition, it requires enhanced schedule management.
Radiology – The branch or specialty of medicine that deals with the study and application of imaging technology like x-ray and radiation to diagnose and treat diseases. The Department of Radiology is a highly specialized, full-service department that strives to meet all patient and clinician needs in diagnostic imaging and image-guided therapies.
The radiology department handles complex cases that involve inferior shoulder dislocation, which is the least common form of shoulder dislocation. In this case, deltoid muscles are greatly impaired. It has high complication rates with secondary vascular, neurological, tendon, and ligament injuries. Hence, it requires Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to facilitate better diagnosis and data collection.
Abdominal and pelvic imaging have improved in the department to provide faster imaging techniques, allowing imaging with consolidated results and offering high-resolution imaging of the adrenals, kidneys, pancreas, and spleen for diagnosis of tumors, infections, and other vascular abnormalities.
The ENT Department
Otolaryngology (Ear, Nose, and Throat) – The ENT Department provides comprehensive and specialized care covering both medical and surgical conditions related not just specifically to the Ear, Nose, and Throat, but also other areas within the Head and Neck region. It is often divided into sub-specialties dealing with only one part of the traditional specialty (otology, rhinology, and laryngology).
The receptors in the head and neck region have become critical for physicians, particularly in several epithelial malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Sinus surgery has become important to treat certain conditions for ENT. However, these interventions are complex and require various departments to work together for improved patient outcomes.
The department needs training in leading technologies: image guidance for sinus surgery, in-office treatment of snoring and mild obstructive sleep apnea, and advanced hearing restoration technology.
The dermatology department is focused on the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions and diseases of the skin such as skin cancer, rashes, and moles.
Dermatologists aim to understand patient’s anatomy of the skin, including epidermis and dermis to advise patients on various conditions like acne, herpes, psoriasis, skin cancer, and hair loss. For instance, patients are advised to avoid exposure to the sun because of melanocytes, which increase their production of melanin to help protect the skin. This process results in the darkening of the skin tone to form suntan.
However, recent skin challenges such as ultraviolet light therapy, allergy patch testing, cosmetic and medical botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, cosmetic tissue fillers, vein treatments, and chemical peels show the need for specialized treatment
The department must also engage patients in Skin Care and Cancer Awareness campaigns
Today, many practitioners have adopted radiofrequency as a non-surgical method to treat loose sagging skin anywhere on the body. Radiofrequency works by gradually heating the dermal and sub-dermal tissues to tighten and re-contour the skin. They claim that collagen fibers contract and multiply which firms and improves laxity. Connective tissue contracts to improve the skin’s contour, texture, and architecture while circulation improves and retained fluids drain from subcutaneous adipose tissue to reduce edema, erythema, and overall volume.
The department aims to promote safe and low-cost ultraviolet light therapy, allergy patch testing, cosmetic and medical botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, cosmetic tissue fillers, vein treatments, and chemical peels.
Cardiology provides medical care to patients who have problems with their heart or circulation. Currently, there are cases of decreasing lab volumes and reimbursement (Kaiser, 2008).
Physicians engage in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) commonly used in the heart and lung because of the difficulty of conducting an operation on the beating heart. It is a complex process that requires specialized machines to support the circulation during the surgery period. They must use this technique to manage complex conditions like heart and lung transplantation and arterial defects.
Today, the department has embarked on advanced electrophysiology to help determine the cause of heart rhythm disturbance and the best treatment for patients.
The mediastinum is divided into three sections, including the anterior, middle, and posterior parts. These parts have the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), thymus gland, esophagus, and connective tissues. Hence, physicians require complex, multi-specialty rooms to handle any possible mediastinal tumors.
The diagnostic tests in cardiology are methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy or unhealthy, pathologic, heart function. There is a noninvasive diagnosis of patients with heart and blood vessel problems.
Gastroenterology – This department investigates and treats digestive and upper and lower gastrointestinal diseases. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract affect several organs from the mouth to the anus within the alimentary canal. Gastroenterologists focus on these conditions, but the complex nature of the alimentary canal requires specialized equipment.
Handles many diseases including, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, colon polyps, irritable bowel syndrome, all digestive disorders.
Rheumatology – Rheumatologists care for and treat patients for musculoskeletal disorders such as bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.
Rheumatologists at the department strive to understand environmental, psychosocial, nutritional, and lifestyle influences on calcium as a component of the human skeleton and the related hypocalcemia. They believe that these are important factors, which they cannot ignore in their treatments, particularly in children. As a result, the department aims to entrench pediatric rheumatology clinical care programs.
It is imperative to understand pathogenic interactions among environmental, psychosocial, nutritional, and lifestyle influences with inherent biologic processes in rheumatic diseases
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with cancer and tumors. The oncology department provides treatments, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, for cancerous tumors and blood disorders (Turley, 2010).
Oncologists have focused on the link between hematochezia, cancer, and tumor. In some cases, they note that hematochezia may occur due to bleeding from recent transplantation. Consequently, the department has noted the need for collaboration and coordination of treatment for patient safety and outcomes.
Physiotherapy – Physiotherapists work through physical therapies such as exercise, massage, and manipulation of bones, joints, and muscle tissues to restore normal body postures.
Interventions are important for athletes who may experience inflammation of a flexor when they suffer injuries.
Physiotherapists have determined that the sagittal balance of the human body is important to prevent weaknesses and sagittal band ruptures. Skull is imperative for physiotherapists to understand particularly when dealing with patients with skull fractures. Physiotherapy helps in cases of gross and fine motor developmental delay, spasticity, and hemiparesis and reduces fluid retention in the left cerebral hemisphere.
The management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain is important for patients. The major causes are mainly dislocated mandibles.
The department applies chest physiotherapy (CPT) to mobilize or lose secretions in the lobes and thorax to the lungs and respiratory tract. In addition, simple bicep and brachial exercise are normally recommended to help improve movement.
Physiotherapists are careful with children. They observe intensive physiotherapy for children having undergone selective dorsal rhizotomy.
Physiotherapy has been used to manage cases of pericardium diseases such as the Mesothelial cyst of the Pericardium.
Physiotherapy has also helped in Throat Strengthening Exercises. The goal of the exercise is to engage the throat and hold the larynx in the lifted position for two to three minutes to enhance the normal movement of the throat.
The department has expanded to include:
- Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
- Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation
- Neuromuscular Rehabilitation
- Sports Rehabilitation
- Pediatric Rehabilitation
- Obstetrics and Gynecology
- Community Rehabilitation
Hematology – These hospital services work with the laboratory. In addition, doctors treat blood diseases and malignancies related to the blood.
Hematologists require plasma to understand diseases related to it, such as hemophilia.
Cases of hemophilia can be controlled with the infusion of factor VIII collected from donated blood or plasma. Myeloblasts can be found in the extravascularly of the bone marrow. Hematologists must understand the bone marrow and body cavities to study hematopoiesis, which takes place in the extravascular cavities between the sinuses of the marrow.
Whole blood phagocytosis protects the body and engulfs pathogens.
Thyroid diseases have been linked to the over-activity of the thyroid. They impair muscle function causing intestines to slow down, constipation, muscle cramps, and weakness.
There is remarkable growth in many departments. Thus, departments need modern equipment for diagnosis, treatment. Collaboration to increase the quality of care. Adopt multidisciplinary approaches as well as patient education and consolidation of services.
Griggs, R., Fontaine, B., & Sobue, G. (2011). Global imperatives and challenges facing the practice of neurology. Neurology Clinical Practice, 1(1), 49-54.
Kaiser, C. (2008). First Word: Challenges and Opportunities in Cardiology. Cardiovascular Business. Web.
Pressman, P. (2014). Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Clots in the Veins of the Brain. Web.
Turley, S. M. (2010). Medical Language (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.