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Reducing Post-Pp Complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery

Abstract

This paper primarily focuses on the methods associated with reducing post-operation complications that can occur as a direct result of gastric bypass surgery. These complications encompass nutritional deficiencies, internal hemorrhaging, hernias, possible bowel obstructions, venous thromboembolism, and even infections in some cases. It is due to this that this paper delves into the various methods that can be utilized to address these complications reasonably.

Introduction

Gastric bypass surgery is an internal form of invasive surgery (though less invasive methods have been developed through the use of surgical robotic arms) that focuses on reducing the functional volume of the stomach (Schiesser 68). This process is done to alter an individual’s physiological response to food by constraining the amount that can be eaten during certain periods of the day. The process involves separating the stomach into two distinct parts which help to reduce the overall size of the stomach to limit the amount of food that can be consumed at any given time. The upper pouch, which differs in size depending on the decision process, is normally constrained into the size of a fairly large apple.

This helps to address the feeling of “satiation” normally associated with consuming sufficient volumes of food to feel full (Pitot 3007). Gastric bypass surgery is a means of helping people who are suffering from extreme obesity, sleep apnea, or even diabetes in some cases (Huyskens 1633). However, it should be noted that due to the surgically invasive nature of the procedure combined with the alterations done on the normal functions of the digestive system, this can result in a considerable number of potential complications.

These encompass but are not limited to, internal hemorrhaging, hernias, possible bowel obstructions, venous thromboembolism, and even infections in some cases. Aside from this, there is also the potential for nutritional deficiencies to occur due to the lack of sufficient food intake due to the reduced volume of the stomach. It is based on these issues that this paper will delve into the various methods that can be utilized to reduce post-operation complications in patients that have recently had gastric bypass surgery.

Methods

This is a literature review primarily encompassing post-operation complications and their solutions. As such, the research method primarily centered on document analysis and focused on the ideal methods that can be implemented to limit the amount of risk that patients are exposed to after their surgery

Infection

One of the most common post-operation complications that can occur after gastric bypass surgery are infected incisions within the abdomen. The reason behind these infections is due to the apparent release of bacteria within the bowels of a person while they are undergoing gastric bypass surgery (Bhutta 588). If left untreated or undetected, this can result in gangrene, blood poisoning, and even death in some cases. It is due to this that it is highly recommended that daily examinations of the incisions be conducted as well as bi-weekly blood tests to look for infection (Puzziferri 936). If an infection is detected, it is recommended that antibiotics be utilized to immediately prevent it from spreading into the rest of the body.

Hemorrhaging

Aside from potential infections, another common post-operation complication is internal hemorrhaging brought about through the various blood vessels that are cut to get into a person’s stomach and reduce the size of their bowel (Sussenbach 2). This can at times result in intra-abdominal hemorrhaging wherein a person bleeds into their abdomen or in some worse case scenarios gastrointestinal hemorrhaging which occurs when a person bleeds into the bowel itself (Perathoner 4311).

This is particularly serious given the potential for blood loss as well as the accumulation of blood in certain sections of the body which could result in blood poisoning later on (Roux and Bueter 1128). Constant observation is needed in order to detect if certain “lumps” are forming in the patient wherein re-operation may be necessary to address such concerns. Aside from this, post-op transfusions are also recommended in cases where there is the potential for internal hemorrhaging, especially in cases where blood thinners were used during the operation (Vines and Schiesser 34).

Bowel Obstruction

Due to the nature of abdominal surgeries, some scarring within the bowl is inevitable. However, during worst-case scenarios, the bowl can become “trapped” so to speak by the scarring resulting in the creation of an obstruction (Hamdan and Chand 1348). The inherent problem with this is that it can create a buildup of fluids and other elements within the bowel which can either cause considerable discomfort or even death in cases where the obstruction builds up to the point that it causes the contents to putrefy (Caranta 465). To address this issue, it is normally the case that further surgery is needed in order to address the issue of the blockage by removing the scar tissue and ensuring that it will not happen again (Mickevicius, Pratik and Heath 436).

Addressing Nutritional Deficiencies

Due to the reduced volume of the stomach, this limits the amount of food that a person can consume per sitting. While this helps to address the issue of obesity in some individuals, the fact remains that this also limits a person’s capacity to be able to eat enough to maintain a healthy body (Raziel 1209). It is based on this that it is highly recommended for people who have received gastric bypass surgery to take supplements in the form of protein powders, vitamin supplements, and other forms of meal replacement alternatives so that they can consume the necessary amount of nutrients to properly maintain their body’s health (Lutz and Bueter 17).

One of the advantages of utilizing this method is connected to the fact that due to the caloric content being written on the labels of the meal replacement alternatives, this ensures that patients can determine how much would be necessary to consume to fall within the recommended daily intake of that specific type of supplement (Walker 739).

Treatment

Based on what has been presented so far, it can be seen that the recommended methods for reducing post-operation complications range between invasive and non-invasive procedures. Do note that these methods are a direct result of the inherently complicated nature of gastric bypass surgery and, as such, it shows why the procedure is normally considered one of the last resort when it comes to helping people with their weight loss issues.

Conclusion

Based on what has been presented so far, it can be seen that this paper has delved into the various methods that can be utilized to reduce post-operation complications in patients that have recently had gastric bypass surgery. It is due to this that it is highly recommended that gastric bypass surgery be used as a method of last resort when it comes to dealing with weight loss issues due to the considerable amount of complications that can arise.

Works Cited

Bhutta, Hina Y. “Intestinal Sweet-Sensing Pathways And Metabolic Changes After Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery.” American Journal Of Physiology: Gastrointestinal & Liver Physiology 307.5 (2014): G588-G593. Print.

Caranta, Diane G. “Complications From Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Mistaken For Medical Complications In Gravid Patients.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 124.2 (2014): 464-466. Print.

Hamdan, K. and Mike Chand. “Management Of Late Postoperative Complications Of Bariatric Surgery.” British Journal Of Surgery 98.10 (2011): 1345-1355. Print.

Huyskens, Jef. “A Case Of Pneumopericardium As A Late Complication Of Gastric Bypass Surgery.” Circulation 130.18 (2014): 1633-1635. Print.

Lutz, Thomas A., and Marco Bueter. “Physiological Mechanisms Behind Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery.” Digestive Surgery 31.1 (2014): 13-24. Print.

Mickevicius, A., Pratik, S. and Dugal Heath. “Factors Predicting The Occurrence Of A Gastrojejunal Anastomosis Leak Following Gastric Bypass.” Videosurgery & Other Miniinvasive Techniques 9.3 (2014): 436-440. Print.

Perathoner, Alexander. “Long-Term Follow-Up Evaluation Of Revisional Gastric Bypass After Failed Adjustable Gastric Banding.” Surgical Endoscopy 27.11 (2013): 4305-4312. Print.

Pitot, Denis. “Pure Transumbilical SILS Gastric Bypass With Mechanical Circular Gastrojejunal Anastomosis Feasibility.” Surgical Endoscopy 28.10 (2014): 3007-3011. Print.

Puzziferri, Nancy. “Long-Term Follow-Up After Bariatric Surgery.” JAMA: Journal Of The American Medical Association 312.9 (2014): 934-942. Print.

Raziel, Asnat. “Concomitant Bariatric And Ventral/Incisional Hernia Surgery In Morbidly Obese Patients.” Surgical Endoscopy 28.4 (2014): 1209-1212. Print.

Roux, Carel W., and Marco Bueter. “The Physiology Of Altered Eating Behavior After Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass.” Experimental Physiology 99.9 (2014): 1128-1132. Print.

Schiesser, Marc. “Successful Endoscopic Management Of Gastrointestinal Leakages After Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery.” Digestive Surgery 31.1 (2014): 67-70. Print.

Sussenbach, Samanta Pereira. “Systematic Review Of Economic Evaluation Of Laparotomy Versus Laparoscopy For Patients Submitted To Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass.” Plos ONE 9.6 (2014): 1-8. Print.

Vines, Larissa, and Marc Schiesser. “Gastric Bypass: Current Results And Different Techniques.” Digestive Surgery 31.1 (2014): 33-39. Print.

Walker, Avery S. “Mesenteric Irritation As A Means To Prevent Internal Hernia Formation After Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery.” American Journal Of Surgery 207.5 (2014): 739-742. Print.

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StudyKraken. (2022, April 19). Reducing Post-Pp Complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery. Retrieved from https://studykraken.com/reducing-post-pp-complications-of-gastric-bypass-surgery/

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StudyKraken. (2022, April 19). Reducing Post-Pp Complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery. https://studykraken.com/reducing-post-pp-complications-of-gastric-bypass-surgery/

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"Reducing Post-Pp Complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery." StudyKraken, 19 Apr. 2022, studykraken.com/reducing-post-pp-complications-of-gastric-bypass-surgery/.

1. StudyKraken. "Reducing Post-Pp Complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery." April 19, 2022. https://studykraken.com/reducing-post-pp-complications-of-gastric-bypass-surgery/.


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StudyKraken. "Reducing Post-Pp Complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery." April 19, 2022. https://studykraken.com/reducing-post-pp-complications-of-gastric-bypass-surgery/.

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StudyKraken. 2022. "Reducing Post-Pp Complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery." April 19, 2022. https://studykraken.com/reducing-post-pp-complications-of-gastric-bypass-surgery/.

References

StudyKraken. (2022) 'Reducing Post-Pp Complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery'. 19 April.

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