Risk Factors Predicting Asthma Among Adult African Immigrants in California
The proposed research study is centered on examining the risk factors predicting asthma among adult African Immigrants in California. Asthma is a significant health issue because asthmatic smokers have heightened health risks that could manifest in labored breathing, excess mucus production, and chronic cough, just to mention a few. These health issues are influenced by socioeconomic factors that will be explained in subsequent sections of this presentation.
The proposed study focuses on examining the risk factors predicting asthma among adult African immigrants in California because the health of African immigrants is under-researched, relative to other immigrant groups in America. This population group also has huge variations in terms of education and income gaps. At the same time, it is largely affected by poor socioeconomic determinants of health, including inadequate access to medical care and the under-prescription of controlled medications.
Hispanics and African immigrants suffer a high risk of asthma fatalities than most racial or ethnic groups in America. Socioeconomic disadvantages, poor housing conditions and the lack of proper access to health care services contribute to these poor health outcomes, but the general health problem is that there are high rates of smoking and asthma among immigrant population groups in America. The specific health problem in the proposed study is that there are high rates of asthma incidences among African immigrants.
One issue that has affected past research studies which have investigated the impact of the risk factors predicting asthma among adult African immigrants in California is their failure to draw a distinction between African immigrants and African-Americans. This oversight has created a confusion between the two groups because African immigrants are not the same as African-Americans. They also have different lived experiences which affect their health outcomes. Generally, the failure to study the health of African immigrants betrays the spirit of a holistic picture of public health, which should be always sought.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to examine the risk factors predicting asthma among adult African immigrants in California. The study will have a positive impact on the society because it will help to increase asthma awareness within the target population. Such an outcome would come, in part, from examining the relationship between risk factors and asthma. Understanding the relationship between these variables could also aid in improving the health outcomes and wellbeing of immigrant populations in California and shed more light on the factors that affect the relationship between the variables.
The theoretical framework for the proposed study is the socio-ecological model. It was authored in the 1970s by sociologists from the Chicago School and revised by Bronfenbrenne throughout the 1970s and 1980s. The framework merges behavioral and anthropology issues in health studies and
explains how different levels of personal and environmental factors affect human behaviors. The rationale for using this theoretical framework in this study stems from its ability to show how different levels of personal and environmental factors affect human behaviors and health outcomes. This dynamism justifies its application in this study because it has helped other researchers to address complicated social issues such as domestic violence and child abuse.
Nature of the Study
The main source of data for the proposed study is the California Health Interview Survey. It is quantitative in nature and aligns with the specific research topic, which strives to examine the risk factors that could predict asthma among adult African immigrants in California. The correlation method is the main approach to this study because it focuses on examining the existence and extent of a relationship between two or more variables. It also aligns with the research topic because the study will also examine the relationship between asthma and risk factors among adult African immigrants in California. Thus, the justification for using the correlational approach rests in the fact that it seeks to examine the relationships between different variables
The main assumption underpinning the research proposal is that data from the California Health Interview Survey are credible and reliable. It is also assumed that its findings will be representative of all African immigrants in California and that the respondents believed the survey was only investigating the relationship between health risk factors and asthma.
Limitations and Delimitations
The limitations of this study largely stem from the use of the cross-sectional approach as the main technique for the formulation of the CHIS dataset. No primary research will be included and the findings will only be relevant to African immigrants in California. Additionally, the study’s findings cannot be assumed to be true for an indefinite period. In other words, the snapshot time within which it was taken may not be holistically representative of the target population. Finally, the findings cannot be used to ascertain causality between asthma and risk factors.
Significance of the Study
The findings of the proposed study would help to examine risk factors or unique attributes that may predict asthma among Californian African immigrants. They could also help to formulate health interventions that address these attributes to achieve the highest levels of success in reducing the rates of asthma cases, inform policy decisions about the condition, and help health experts to develop focused interventions that appeal to unique African immigrant dynamics, as a strategy to increase disease awareness among African immigrants.
Research Design & Data Collection
The research design and rationale is based on the quantitative correlation approach. It is selected for the study because it could explore the relationship between two or more variables. It is also consistent with other research designs that have been used by other health researchers to advance knowledge in the health care practice.
Target Population & Sample Size
The target population is adult African immigrants in California who are above 18 years. The sample size will be 820 participants, which is more than the required minimum sample size requirement of 385 respondents based on a 95% confidence level, a 5% confidence interval, and a population of 2,000,000 used in most studies. The research participants must also have originally emigrated from Africa, assumed the status of first generation immigrants, and living or possibly working within California, USA.
Data Source & Data Management
The main source of data will be the California Health Interview Survey and will be obtained via an open access platform. Information will be done using the SPSS software and will mainly comprise of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis methods. The information obtained will also be “cleaned” using range data and checked for minimum and maximum variables of the dataset. Additionally, they will be checked for oddities and abnormal responses.
Reliability and validity of CHIS data
The CHIS data was checked for reliability and validity using Cronbach’s alpha and pilot study analysis. Reliability tests included data processes to measure internal consistency and correlation of variables. The internal consistency was found to be generally “excellent” because Cronbach’s alpha was about 0.89 for most of the research scales used. There were also no signs of poor validity or high rates of false negative or false positive responses for the validity tests. Based on these findings, it is possible to assume that the questions correctly measured the constructs.
Multiple Logistic Regression
The logistics regression analysis will be instrumental in undertaking the proposed study because it will test the research hypotheses. In the context of this review, the multiple logistic regression method would be used in estimating the effect of the covariates in the relationship between dependent and independent variables. Its significance would be hinged on examining whether there is a significant difference between two or more research variables. Generally, the multiple logistic regression method will provide context to the study and provide a deeper meaning to the research process. Therefore, the use of the multiple logistic regression statistical analysis is hinged on providing a holistic understanding of the relationship between dependent and independent variables.
To make sure the study meets the highest ethical standards, approval will be obtained from UCLA, while the ethical guidelines will be based on the institutional review board guidelines. Data will also be checked for cases of privacy infringement or confidentiality breaches, stored safely in a computer and protected by a password, while credit will be given to the original authors of the research.
Summary of Proposal
To recap, the purpose of the proposed study is to examine risk factors predicting asthma among adult African immigrants in California and it emerges from a research gap, which highlights the failure of past researchers to study African immigrants’ health issues. The review will be guided by the socio-ecological model and it is assumed that data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) are credible and reliable.
At the same time, it is important to point out that the dependent variable for the study will be asthma and the independent variables will be smoking, alcohol use, education level, income level, occupation, and health care access. The covariates moderating this relationship will be age, gender, marital status, housing type, and caring neighbors. Data will be collected from the CHIS database and the research design is premised on the quantitative correlation research. Lastly, it is essential to understand that the findings will only be relevant to African immigrants in California and will not represent causation. It is expected that the results will create a positive societal change by increasing asthma awareness and informing policies on the same, thereby improving the health of African immigrants and the entire population, by extension.
California Health Interview Survey. (2016). CHIS 2015 adult questionnaire. Web.
Clarke, P., Sastry, N., Duffy, D., & Ailshire, J. (2014). Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: Findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996–2008. American Journal of Epidemiology, 180(2), 153-159.
Harring, R., & Blozis, S. (2014). Fitting correlated residual error structures in nonlinear mixed-effects models using Sas Proc Nlmixed. Behavior Research Methods, 46(1), 372-384.
UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. (2017). CHIS data quality.