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Science and Innovation and Development

Executive Summary

A search of numerous internet databases, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Emerald, the directory of open access journals, and EBSCOhost, found the most reputable sources for this study. I whittled down the list of references to the twenty most reputable peer-reviewed journals from more than 200. Recent papers on the subject of this investigation were included in the literature review. Priorities were assigned to subtopics on scientific innovation, innovation methods and innovative technology. Prior to delving into policy recommendations, it is vital to address the existing divide between developed and developing countries in terms of widely recognised critical capabilities for the innovation process. Scientists use novel approaches and undertake extensive analyses of the efficacy of worldwide operations and projects. Their ground-breaking research and tools assist governments, organisations, community groups, and other essential decision-makers in developing personalised policies that encourage development while safeguarding the environment. Globalisation, research and ongoing innovation have fuelled tremendous economic growth in some countries, resulting in a virtual wealth surplus.The goal of this report is to undertake a thematic analysis of the science and innovation literature in relation to project development. Innovation, identified as the process of abandoning established knowledge, beliefs, commodities and practices favouring newly developed or significantly enhanced versions, can assist a corporation in staying ahead of the competition. The creative business history explores themes such as the timely application of technological advances and their fit products and sales scenarios. Comparative studies have been particularly instructive in resolving conflicts over various nations’ competitiveness. The study summarises research that blended quantitative and qualitative techniques with the explicit goal of finding and validating science and innovation variables that affect organisational survival and growth. The technique was satisfactory in terms of addressing the research issues raised in the publications. This report contributes to the corpus of knowledge regarding the significance of technical advancements by highlighting the qualities that industrialists and employees should possess to secure their firms’ continued existence and growth.


Science, innovation and development are critical components of every aspect of life, including education. With current technology and innovation, numerous complex and crucial activities can be completed more easily and efficiently (Mansia, Kuanish and Bibigul, 2021). Their landmark research and tools enable governments, organisations, community groups, and other critical decision-makers to build customised policies that advance development while protecting nature (Pershina, Soppe and Thune, 2019). In this scenario, certain regions have taken the initiative to enable the required steps to increase the prosperity of the backward nations. The purpose of this report is to conduct a thematic evaluation of the literature on science and innovation in relation to project development.

The literatures reviewed in this report include recent studies on the subject of this investigation. Subtopics on scientific innovation, innovation processes and innovative technology were prioritised. In accordance with the theme, this report incorporated credible peer-reviewed academic publications. The mass manufacturing processes that had been successful in the enormous and largely homogeneous US market with a mostly inexperienced labour force were not transferrable, at least not successfully, to Europe’s entirely diverse economic environment (Hannen et al., 2019). Being at the vanguard of science and innovation has largely been advantageous. Technological breakthroughs are becoming an increasingly important driver of growth in the world’s top industrial economies (Stier and Smit, 2021). Through science and innovation, individuals, organisations and countries discover and push more intelligent and effective answers to some of humanity’s most pressing problems.

Critical Review

The critical review section covers critical appraisal of literature and critical evaluation of the research methods. A rigorous examination of the studies is beneficial because it fosters the complete comprehension needed to minimise or overcome obstacles to the efficient development and implementation of science and innovation in project improvement or research and development.

Critical Appraisal of Literature

Innovation, defined as the process of moving away from established information, beliefs, products or practices in favour of freshly generated or considerably enhanced ones, can help a business stay ahead of the competition (Akhmetshin et al., 2018). It entails new perspectives on technology advancements, marketing methods or customer behaviour. Innovation can come from within businesses or from outside sources, and it can be dramatic or incremental (Benetto, Gericke and Guiton, 2018). While radical innovation is more difficult to adopt and generally carries a higher risk due to the uncertainty, it may be better ideal for lasting growth. Conversely, gradual innovation is more manageable and well-suited to incremental improvement. The success of a project can be measured objectively and subjectively (Bendak, Shikhli and Abdel-Razek, 2020). Subjectivity is determined by the observer’s view and may not take into account the many stakeholders’ interests. Objectivity is largely determined by how group members describe and construe success (Lenihan, McGuirk and Murphy, 2019). Because relevant groups will have varying demands and priorities, the interpretation will vary as per their level of satisfaction.

While globalisation, increased international competitiveness and rapid technological progress have generated substantial societal advantages globally, they also pose considerable challenges for developing countries. For example, the expenses of commercialising research products can be prohibitively high in instances when an extensive bureaucracy is necessary to preserve patents and defend against counter-claims of entitlement by highly funded worldwide competitors. Similarly, “mass migration” can quickly erode any gains accrued through years of intense investment in developing a pool of highly skilled researchers (Bibarsov, Khokholova and Okladnikova, 2017). Rapid technological evolution necessitates constant and ever-increasing spending on new equipment to uphold modern research in lab-based and technology domains (Timur and Antanas, 2017). These expenses are difficult for developing countries to bear.

Local authorities, in general, ought to be properly informed regarding the national value of a solid commitment to science and innovation through increased investment in capacity development and opportunity growth. There is not much significance to where the fellowship money comes from; what matters is that the granting of programs is seen as one of the most significant, yet least expensive, ways to raise research standards in any nation, but notably in developing ones. Scientists from more developed nations who come to research can be excellent resources (Liu et al., 2021). They can impart knowledge, offer advice based on experience, and act as a platform for new opportunities. A risk to the home program is a concern for institute directors in wealthy nations, who are reluctant to allow employees to go on abroad missions (Lang and Görmar, 2019). This is absurd, as most researchers and scientists who go on missions abroad come back with new ideas and a fresh perspective on their field of work.

Critical Evaluation of the Research Methods

Strong economic growth and transformation have a significant relationship, mainly in developing nations where innovations diffuse. According to Aujirapongpan et al. (2020), Japan’s digital advancement strategy for ASEAN nations from 2015 to 2019 sought to widen the scope of digital economic progress. The article also evaluated workflow arrangement procedures to understand better how Japan’s digital advance policy enhances ASEAN’s innovation industry. Seventy-four in-depth interviews with important ASEAN, Japan International Cooperation Agency, CSTI and significant digital enterprise experts from five ASEAN nations round out the research approach, anchored in an empirical analysis of relevant available evidence. The method used to analyse the phenomenon was appropriate. This is because an analysis of the challenges indicated the necessity for international structure and innovative technology to foster the development of the digital economy via participation in science and innovation.

The risk of underrate and disregards in project management, particularly under the current extremely competitive conditions, may result in the corporate insolvency resolution process. In line with a survey in Thailand, Ayudhya and Kunishima (2019) examine the impact of property development adverse outcomes and emphasise essential variables in risk management for small scientific projects. The study used a mixed-methods strategy that included interviews as well as a questionnaire survey. A questionnaire survey was done amongst 120 randomly picked professionals from a primary identified practitioner group to evaluate the indicated determinants and interviews with purposefully chosen participants (landowners, developers, specialists and contractors). The characteristics and measures considered potential barriers to the building were analysed and graded based on their average score. The findings reached by the researchers are valid in light of the technique they employed and the outcomes they obtained.

Engineers and technologists hold many corporate positions in science, innovation, research and development. As a result, enterprises in emerging nations may be required to make sizeable on-the-job preparation expenditures to train such graduates for quality contribution in research and development. For this study, Borah, Malik, and Massini (2019) conducted 65 interviews with ten Indian organisations and collected in‐depth data to determine how these companies collaborate with academic institutions to train students in the essential skills needed for research and development practices while saving money on on-the-job training. The methodology was appropriate for answering the research questions posed by the article. This is because researchers show that industry-academia partnerships that focus on teaching can effectively recruit top-notch employees, especially in developing nations.

The complexity, unpredictability and intense rivalry inherent in the technological and industrial applications in which businesses operate today create new difficulties and growing issues. It is universal for initiatives to fail miserably and expensively, undermining their primary aims (costs, timelines and technical operations). Chaouch et al. (2019) design a framework incorporating risk management ideas and practices into the Scrum design model. This enables teams to handle risks in Scrum projects more efficiently and increases the likelihood of a successful project. This study’s primary research technique was a survey. The most critical step in the survey method is developing questions that correctly represent the respondents’ perspectives and experiences. Likert scales were employed to assess attitudes in this study. The questionnaire was distributed via individual’s professional social platforms such as LinkedIn. Sixty-five experts from 28 nations participated in the questionnaire. The methodology was not suitable for tackling the research questions in the article, and I would not have utilised the same methodological approach. This is because it is not frequently employed in agile techniques despite the critical nature of risk management for project success.

Technological advancements, changes in customer behaviour, increasing competition, few resources, short product lifecycles, and changing business models are just a few of the reasons that contribute to the need for innovation in companies. The purpose of Kozio-Nadolna’s (2020) paper is to focus on management and its role in encouraging innovation. A distinctive questionnaire and deductive reasoning were used to measure the function of a leader in promoting inventive activities. The study questioned 86 leaders. The approach was acceptable for addressing the article’s research issues. This is because examining the empirical study findings verified the research hypothesis that a leader’s job is to promote workers’ creativity and reward inventive conduct. In accordance with the research, a leader should first act as a creator and influencer of innovative behaviour and a champion of recognising employee creativity among workers to drive innovation.

Capability for innovation has a major influence on a company’s long-term success. The faster a business grows, the less likely it will collapse, and hence the greater its prospects of survival. Eliakis et al. (2020) report the outcomes of a study that combined quantitative and qualitative approaches with the particular objective of categorising and validating the variables that influence their endurance and growth. The approach was acceptable for addressing the article’s research issues. This is because the findings of a detailed longitudinal qualitative approach indicate that several factors associated with both the entrepreneurial team’s and workers’ profiles substantially influence the corporation’s sustenance and development in this environment.

Engels, Wentland and Pfotenhauer (2019) develop theory and derive generalisable findings through a qualitative case study technique, ethnographic fieldwork, interviews and thorough document analysis. The authors’ assertions are valid in light of their approach and findings. This is because case studies have remained prominent in innovation research in recent years due to their advantages for exploring and comprehending complicated societal changes linked with developing technology. Hannen et al. (2019) employ a mixed-methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative empirical studies. I would have approached the study in the same manner. This is because mixed methods research designs enable the development of novel insights into previously unexplored phenomena by combining the complementary qualities of qualitative and quantitative methodologies within the same investigation.

Lempiälä et al. (2019) augment current theories in their study by investigating phenomena in their natural setting, which is why they chose a qualitative approach in the research method. The authors’ arguments are valid in light of their methodology and findings. This is because observing social groups and underlying occurrences enables the researcher to explore the arena and get insights without having any previous experiences of the process’s end. Liu et al. (2021) used a substantial survey questionnaire to gather the data necessary for demonstration. The questionnaire was distributed to individuals who were currently engaged in or previously involved in collaborative innovation activities. The authors’ conclusions are valid given their approach and outcomes. This is because proposals for high-quality projects and sustainability were made.


Consistent with the findings by Aujirapongpan et al. (2020), ASEAN strategies, Japanese digital foreign direct investment, Japanese firms and the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (CSTI) all have different influences on the region. The results show that Japan’s digital advancement policy and ASEAN’s innovative businesses need to refocus their development efforts and improve mutual alignment. Ayudhya and Kunishima (2019) established ten most significant risk factors affecting management’s ability to perform in development initiatives. They include operational faults, payment lags, flaws in the design, interest rates, natural disasters, cost variations, fluctuations in employment, process delays, political instability and regulatory changes.

The study results by Borah, Malik, and Massini (2019) emphasise the need for joint efforts between business and academia for education. In an uncertain and competitive world, companies seek novel strategies for gaining a competitive edge. One of these methods is via invention. Scrum projects lack meticulous mechanisms for their management. The results of the study by Chaouch et al. (2019) have yet to be validated in a real-world development situation. Accordingly, governments, scientists, researchers and organisations should expressly integrate risk management. The objective should be to enhance the technique by mapping risk management concepts, which will raise the project’s success rate. Eliakis et al. (2020) identify and evaluate three phases in a project’s progression: an introductory “evolution” level of development (infancy and adolescence), a “revolutionary” developmental level (conflict) and a subsequent “evolutionary” phase of growth (maturity).

Engels, Wentland and Pfotenhauer’s (2019) analysis identifies three distinct barriers to project success: the limitations of empirical testing, a strain between open-ended experiments and the push to demonstrate accomplishment, and the conflicting needs of regional sociocultural precision and scalability. Formal groups and informal contacts between members provide an opportunity for colleagues to become connected, which greatly reduces perceived strangeness. Frequent communication facilitates the formation of more favourable attitudes and the reduction of bias against external resources (Hannen et al., 2019).

The findings of Lempiälä et al. (2019) demonstrate the difficult position that a breakthrough technology faces in two distinct political spheres: industrial policy and innovation strategy. Thus, innovation on its own is insufficient, particularly when no commercialisation assistance measures are implemented. As shown by Liu et al. (2021), benefit-sharing, resource reliance, organisational environment, and collaborative creativity all have an overt and covert effect on project performance. Nine aspects were examined: interest allocation, organisational commitment, resource reliance, incentive mechanism, collaborative innovation capability, readiness to collaborate, effective communication, managerial support and degree of information sharing. Each of the nine variables had a beneficial influence on the productivity of cooperative innovation activities.

Discussion of Results

Science and innovation have received considerable attention in recent decades due to their facilitation of the managerial capacity to improve an organisation’s long-term prospects. More broadly, innovation generates a set of values, beliefs and practices unique to an organisation, country or group of people and should be transmitted through generations. Cooperation may be used to build an option to the standard graduate recruiting and development approach: ‘on-the-job learning.’ Innovation could reinforce a long-neglected dimension of cooperation by identifying various types of teaching-centred industry-academia practices of collaborations designed to improve both theoretical concepts and organisation- and country-specific practical and technical skills in trainees, as well as their affiliated drivers and obstacles.

Some risks to organisational success, like development-related technical hazards, may manifest and be detected during collaborative engagements between the employees and management. The reviewed articles contribute to the body of knowledge on the importance of technological innovations by outlining qualities that entrepreneurs and workers should embrace to ensure their organisations’ continued existence and growth. Science directs focus toward the most pressing demands and opportunities. Scientists devise innovative techniques and conduct comprehensive evaluations of the global activities and projects’ efficacy. Globalisation, science and continuous innovation have resulted in significant economic growth for some countries, leading to a virtual surplus of riches. Simultaneously, certain countries that have not taken up science and innovation suffer difficulties and a shortage of basic services like healthcare, education and technological advancement.


Science, innovation and progress are integral parts of all facets of life, including education. Numerous intricate and critical tasks can be accomplished more quickly and efficiently with contemporary technology and innovation. Attention is redirected by science toward the most pressing demands and opportunities. Technological advancements are becoming a more significant engine of growth in the world’s advanced economies. Through research and innovation, individuals, organisations and countries discover and advance more intelligent and practical solutions to some of humanity’s most pressing challenges.

While globalisation, increased international competitiveness and rapid technological advancement have resulted in significant societal benefits on a global scale, they have also created noteworthy obstacles for developing countries. For instance, the costs of commercialising research inventions might be prohibitively high when a huge bureaucracy is required to protect patents and defend against counter-claims of entitlement by well-funded international competitors. Organisations establish projects to take advantage of growing business and technological opportunities in order to expand and achieve their strategic goals. Scientists from more developed countries who come to conduct research can also be invaluable resources. They possess the capacity to convey knowledge, provide sound counsel based on experience and serve as a conduit for new prospects. The majority of researchers and scientists who travel overseas return with new ideas and a new perspective on their subject of study. Based on the analysed articles, policymakers and institution leaders should properly understand research trends, legislative contexts and financing arrangements to make tremendous innovative and scientific breakthroughs in project management.

Reference List

Akhmetshin, E., Vasilev, V., Mironov, D., Yumashev, A., Puryaev, A. and Lvov, V. (2018) ‘Innovation process and control function in management’, European Research Studies, 21(1), pp. 663-674.

Aujirapongpan, S., Songkajorn, Y., Ritkaew, S. and Deelers, S. (2020) ‘Japan’s digital advance policy towards performance in multilateral ASEAN’s innovation business’, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 8(1), pp. 1081-1094.

Ayudhya, B. and Kunishima, M. (2019) ‘Assessment of risk management for small residential projects in Thailand’, Procedia Computer Science, 164, pp. 407-413.

Bendak, S., Shikhli, A. and Abdel-Razek, R. (2020) ‘How changing organisational culture can enhance innovation: development of the innovative culture enhancement framework’, Cogent Business & Management, 7(1), pp. 1-17.

Benetto, E., Gericke, K. and Guiton, M. (2018) Designing sustainable technologies, products and policies: from science to innovation. Basingstoke: Springer Nature.

Bibarsov, K., Khokholova, G. and Okladnikova, D. (2017) ‘Conceptual basics and mechanism of innovation project management’, European Research Studies Journal, 20(2), pp. 224-235.

Borah, D., Malik, K. and Massini, S. (2019) ‘Are engineering graduates ready for R&D jobs in emerging countries? Teaching-focused industry-academia collaboration strategies’, Research Policy, 48(9), pp. 1-14.

Chaouch, S., Mejri, A. and Ghannouchi, S. (2019) ‘A framework for risk management in Scrum development process’, Procedia Computer Science, 164, pp.187-192.

Eliakis, S., Kotsopoulos, D., Karagiannaki, A. and Pramatari, K. (2020) ‘Survival and growth in innovative technology entrepreneurship: a mixed-methods investigation’, Administrative Sciences, 10(3), pp. 1-35.

Engels, F., Wentland, A. and Pfotenhauer, S. (2019) ‘Testing future societies? Developing a framework for test beds and living labs as instruments of innovation governance’, Research Policy, 48(9), pp.1-10.

Hannen, J., Antons, D., Piller, F., Salge, T., Coltman, T. and Devinney, T. (2019) ‘Containing the not-invented-here syndrome in external knowledge absorption and open innovation: the role of indirect countermeasures’, Research Policy, 48(9), pp. 1-16.

Kozioł-Nadolna, K. (2020) ‘The role of a leader in stimulating innovation in an organisation’, Administrative Sciences, 10(3), pp. 1-18.

Lang, T. and Görmar, F. (2019) Regional and local development in times of polarisation: re-thinking spatial policies in Europe. Basingstoke: Springer Nature.

Lempiälä, T., Apajalahti, E.L., Haukkala, T. and Lovio, R. (2019) ‘Socio-cultural framing during the emergence of a technological field: creating cultural resonance for solar technology’, Research Policy, 48(9), pp. 1-17.

Lenihan, H., McGuirk, H. and Murphy, K. (2019) ‘Driving innovation: public policy and human capital’, Research Policy, 48(9), pp. 1-15.

Liu, H., Liu, Z., Lai, Y. and Li, L. (2021) ‘Factors influencing collaborative innovation project performance: the case of China’, Sustainability, 13(13), pp. 1-19.

Mansia, S., Kuanish, Y. and Bibigul, I. (2021) ‘Innovation processes in Kazakhstan: development factors’, Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 10(1), pp. 1-13.

Pershina, R., Soppe, B. and Thune, T. (2019) ‘Bridging analog and digital expertise: cross-domain collaboration and boundary-spanning tools in the creation of digital innovation’, Research Policy, 48(9), pp. 1-12.

Stier, J. and Smit, S. (2021) ‘Co-creation as an innovative setting to improve the uptake of scientific knowledge: overcoming obstacles, understanding considerations and applying enablers to improve scientific impact in society’, Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 10(1), pp. 1-14.

Timur, K. and Antanas, M. (2017) ‘The definition and classification of innovation’, Holistica, 8(1), pp. 59-72.


Appendix A- Search Plan

The most excellent sources for this study were identified by searching multiple internet databases, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Emerald, the directory of open access journals, and EBSCOhost. Additionally, journals such as the Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, the International Journal of Innovation Science, and Research Policy were culled for inclusion in the search. I utilised a variety of search phrases to locate reputable periodicals in the databases while selecting the most credible articles. Project management, research and development, scientific innovation, digital innovation, innovation, innovation project, innovation process, innovative technology, and scientific knowledge are just a few of the search terms used. I used my discretion to narrow the list of references to the twenty most trustworthy peer-reviewed journals and books from more than 200.

Appendix B- Notes

Technological breakthroughs, whether self-started or begun by others, are critical to the growth of many organisations. Thus, work history attempts to describe technological processes; nevertheless, this frequently results in partial lists of magnificent inventions and laudations to specific entrepreneurs’ creativity. The innovative business history examines the timely deployment of technological developments and their suitability for specific manufacturing and sales situations. Comparative studies have been particularly illuminating in disputes about the competitiveness of various nations. Before delving into policy recommendations, it is necessary to address the existing gap between developed and developing countries in terms of the competencies widely recognised as critical for the innovation process. This knowledge divide continues to expand over time because of rapid technical advancements in affluent societies and ridiculously low technological innovations in the majority of developing countries. Organisations develop projects to capitalise on emerging business and technical opportunities in order to expand and attain their strategic objectives. Because project management success is the main goal of all companies and stakeholders, obtaining it is an obsession for any organisation. Despite studies in this subject and greater knowledge about what makes a project successful or unsuccessful, development plans face significant challenges to meet the needs of many stakeholders.

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