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Liver Failure and Life Experience in Adult Patients

Introduction

One of the leading causes of death among the adults is liver failure (Kelly, 2008). The disease has a long term implications on the general healthcare of individuals. This condition is becoming more prevalent among the adults. In fact, it is one of the most common chronic diseases among the adults (Sargent, 2009). Therefore, it is inevitable that as the population ages, the number of people with liver failure will increase. In spite of the measures put down to prevent liver failure among the adults, the number has continued to increase. This essay explains the phenomenological approach of carrying out research on causes of liver failure among the adults, their life experience with the chronic disease and the measures that health care can take to prevent these cases.

Research Question

What are their life experiences patients have with liver failure disease?

Research approach

Qualitative research has achieved status and visibility in the social science and particularly in the health care field (Holloway, 2005). The goal of qualitative research is to answer questions which are not answered by the quantitative research. Qualitative research helps research to gain a more detailed understanding of a specific phenomenon of interest. It also helps one to understand and explain unusual situations that could not be identified through large scale quantitative methods. These are meant to describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in individual

In order to investigate why liver failure is prevalent among the adults, the researcher will use phenomenological approach (Holloway & Wheeler, 2009). This is because it is a rigorous critical, systematic method of investigation which is a recognized qualitative research approach. It is applicable to the study of phenomena important in the field of nursing (Gerrish, & Lacey, 2010). Phenomenological inquiry brings to language perceptions of human experience with all types of phenomena. It is noted both as philosophy and research approach because it allows nurses to explore and describe phenomena important to the discipline. A key advantage of phenomenological approach is that phenomenology foregrounds the experience of the individual. Therefore, it provides a voice for the lived experiences of different people, which are not adequately represented or analyzed by methods which aggregate statistics from large samples such as randomized controlled trials or epidemiology surveys. The understanding of patients’ perspectives and decisions will be greatly enriched by entering into dialogue with them, which will reveal ethical and moral dimensions of their lives that cannot be explained by or captured by scientific methods and which may open up entirely new interpretations of their situation. Whereas many approaches to research place great emphasis on showing that the conclusion have been derived by means of a series of approved procedures, in phenomenological analysis, the emphasis is on offering an interpretation that is imaginative, thought provoking and compelling. Consequently, theory typically plays a much greater role in a phenomenological analysis than does methodological stringency, and a good analysis is able to go beyond existing and common sense interpretations to suggest quite new avenues for exploration.

The first step in conducting this research is choosing a topic which in this case is liver failure among the adult patients (Mann, 2006). The second step is bracketing interview. Once a topic has been chosen and the phenomenological method has been determined to be the most appropriate approach for addressing it, the focus will shift to the participant. To sharpen this focus, a bracketing interview will be conducted. During this interview, the primary investigator is interviewed by another researcher familiar with the phenomenological process. The purpose of this interview is to explore possible personal biases of the liver failure researcher. Bracketing should be considered as an ongoing process during the research project where the researcher will continually reflect upon, bracket and intuit his bias. The goal of the bracketing interview is for the researcher to identify his pre-supposition from the very onset of the research project. By making bias visible, the researcher is positioned to be a good listener during the interview process and is less likely to mix his belief from the experience of the participant.

The third step in phenomenological research process is the actual phenomenological interviews. Here, the focus is on the participants and their first person description of the specific lived experience of being an adult patient with liver failure. Following an initial open-ended question regarding the participant’s recollection of experience, the interview follows the direction given by the participant. The dialogue between the interviewer and the participant is more circular than linear in nature. Thus, it resembles a conversation more than a question and answer session. To achieve this conversational dialogue, the researcher will ask probing follow-up questions to clarify statements or to obtain a more detailed description of the experience (Speziale & Carpenter, 2007).

The forth step in phenomenological research is data analysis. The researcher will sort out the information got after conducting the interview in order to come up with real causes of liver failure among the adult patients. The last step is reporting findings to participants (Pope & Mays, 2006). During the last step of the phenomenological research process the focus shifts back to the participants. The researcher will give the participants an opportunity to the structure describing their experience and give a feedback as to how accurately and completely the structure does so. This step is important in securing the study’s validity.

Literature review

The liver is the largest solid organ in the body, weighing approximately 1500g in adults, and comprises one fifth of the total adult body weight (Sargent, 2009). The liver lies in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity and it is covered by glisson’s capsule, and therefore, protected by the rib cage. It has two anatomical lobes, with the right one being six times larger than the left one.

Liver failure is not common in childhood but it is common with adults. In adults, liver disease may come to light either following a clinically apparent episode of acute liver injury with jaundice and deranged liver function tests or more insidious with features of chronic liver disease (Sargent, 2009).

Causes of liver failure in adults

Non-alcoholic liver disease

According to, there are specific non-alcoholic liver diseases. They include a range of liver disorders which have similar features to alcoholic liver disorders but they occur in association with diabetes and obesity rather than alcohol. The rising cases of obesity in adults have resulted to increasing cases of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Liver abscess

This is a collection of necrotic and acute inflammatory debris and fluids (Kelly, 2008). It is mostly caused by bacteria and fungi that get to the liver through direct ascent up the billary tree. Liver abscess also occurs mostly to patients who are immune deficient or those on cancer chemotherapy or those patients who are very old or severely debilitated from chronic disease. Diagnosis in most of the time is missed or delayed because the symptoms of the absence are obscured by other serious clinical problems and therefore this may result to liver failure.

Toxic liver injury

Injury from drugs and toxins may result to adult liver failure. Liver metabolizes and excretes most drugs and other exogenous compounds in large amount thus resulting to its damage. There are two types of liver reactions on drugs and toxins. First are those that are dose related, that is, liver damage will occur if enough chemical is present. The second reaction occurs when people cannot metabolize a chemical. The chemical may initiate autoimmune hepatitis. This reaction is attributed to a very long list of drugs like halothane and sulfonamide antibiotics (Kelly, 2008).

Alcohol

Alcoholism is the leading cause of liver failure in industrialized countries. About 20 million Americans abuse alcohol and about 25 percent hospitalized patients have some alcohol related problem. All alcoholics develop fatty livers and the first sign of alcohol injury is degeneration. In severe cases, the liver becomes large, yellow and greasy. It also causes hepatitis which is a chronic form of liver injury and it is characterized by inflammation, hepatocyte necrosis and early fibrosis which can progress to cirrhosis if alcohol abuse continues.

Hemochromatosis

This is a hereditary liver disease which affects the adults. This disease is as a result of defects in the genes which lead to iron accumulation in the liver thus causing cirrhosis. The small intestine absorbs iron but no excretory pathway particularly in men. All body iron reserves are stored in the liver, which is therefore affected directly by iron overload.

Fatty liver disease

This problem is very common with those people who are overweight because it is caused by excess built up fat in the liver. This disease results to inflammation which may lead to cirrhosis.

Treatment of liver diseases

Orthotropic liver transplant is one of the most common procedures taken to correct the problem. It entails surgical procedure geared towards the removal of diseased organ, which is then given to the needy patient. This procedure is an accepted treatment for most of irreversible liver diseases. The patient goes through donor transplantation which involves removal of the right hepatic lobe from a health individual and transplantation in to an adult recipient. Very small adult patients may be transplanted with the smaller left hepatic lobe which usually has fewer risks to the donor (Kelly, 2008).

The other liver treatment method is cellular therapeutics. The aim of cell therapy is to replace, repair or enhance the biological function of damaged tissues or organs which can be achieved by transplanting cells to the target organ in sufficient numbers. This helps them to survive long enough in order to restore the normal functions of organs and tissues. Organs and tissues treated by this approach can perform their normal function more efficiently than those treated by conventional therapies like transplantation.

Adult haematopoietic stem cell for hepatocyte can also be used to treat liver diseases in adults. Stem cells are in-differentiated and highly clonogenic with self renew capacity and multi-lineage differentiation potential. They are also responsive to environmental cues. These characteristics make them ideal candidates for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Human bone marrow cells are able to differentiate in to cells with liver like characteristics.

Interview

Phenomenological interviewing will be used in this research because it is a specific type of in-depth interviewing grounded in the philosophical tradition of phenomenology. This is the study of lived experiences and the ways people understand those experiences to develop a world view. It rests on the assumption that there is a structure and essence to shared experiences that can be narrated. The purpose of this type of interviewing will be to describe the reason why there is high rise of liver failure among the adult patients as several individuals will share (Pope & Mays, 2006).

The researcher will use three in-depth interviews in composing phenomenological inquiry. The first focus will be on the past experience of adults liver failure patients, the second focus will be on present experience, and the third focus will be to join the two narratives to describe the individual’s essential experience with the phenomenon. Prior to interviewing, however, the researcher will have to write a full description of his own experience, thereby bracketing off his experience from those of the interview partners. The purpose of this self examination is to permit the researcher to gain clarity from his own misconception. This phase of inquiry is known as epoche.

The next phase is phenomenological reduction where the researcher will identify the essence of the phenomenon. The researcher then clusters the data around themes that describe the experience. The final stage is structural synthesis which involves the imaginative exploration of all possible meaning and culminates in a description of the essence of the phenomenon and its structure. The primary advantage of phenomenological interviewing is that it permits an explicit focus on the researchers personal experience combined with those of the interview partners (Pope & Mays, 2006).

Rationale for using in-depth interviews

The researcher will conduct in-depth interview. The most widely known and probably the most widely used, of the qualitative methods is the in-depth, open ended questions of an individual. Using questions that require more than a yes or no response, encouraging explanation and allow for story telling which lead to information that is detailed, personal and often reflective. These types of data are preferred when the meaning and attributions are the focus and when new insights into a phenomenon are sought. Typically, individuals who are interviewed are purposively selected based on a narrow set of criteria.

The in-depth interview research method is a useful toll in qualitative research methodology. They balance a purely qualitative method by allowing for integration of researchers and practitioners perspectives for cross validation in a cost effective way. In-depth interviews are advantageous because they collect information without losing any significant details. They are extremely important to capture rich information, to develop and confirm the text for the theoretical model and to enhance the validity of a qualitative questionnaire survey method.

The primary advantage of in-depth interviewing is that the findings are rich, often fascinating and can provide the researcher and audience with the felt shared experience of the participants. The report is interspersed with quotes and true accounts that bring the issue or event to life. In-depth interview also offer the researcher the possibility of being surprised by the data and of learning something genuinely new (Pope & Mays, 2006).

Conducting in-depth interviews requires skills on the part of the interviewer. The interviewer needs to be sensitive to the cues of the interviewee with regard to when to stop the interview, as well as when and how to ask for clarification when the interviewee is either using slang or not providing an easily interpreted story. In-depth interviews can be done almost everywhere that the interviewer and interviewee mutually feel comfortable and secure in terms of maintaining confidentiality. More neutral territory is better, whether that is the interviewees home or in a local library.

Interview guide

The qualitative research interview is not based on a formal schedule of questions to be asked word for word in a set order. Instead it generally uses an interview guide, listing topics which the interviewer should attempt to cover in the course of the interview and suggesting probes which may be used to follow up responses and elicit greater detail from participants. There are three sources for topics to be included in an interview guide: the research literature, the interviewers own personal knowledge and experience of the area, and informal preliminary work such as discussion with people experience on the research area.

Dear participants,

I am requesting you to participate in this research study on liver failure on adult patients. The interview will only take half an hour and thus am requesting for your time and patience. I am also requesting for permission to audiotape the interview so that I can get each and every detail of your answer. I promise that your responses will be treated with the utmost confidentiality and thus you should not disclose your name. Participation is voluntary. I hope your response will be useful to the study and I promise to share the results by publishing them.

  • For how long have you been suffering from liver failure?
  • When did you realize that you were suffering from liver failure?
  • Give some of the signs of a person suffering from liver failure?
  • Which are the most common causes of liver failure?
  • Do you take alcohol?
  • If yes, do you think it could be the cause of liver failure?
  • Are you suffering from obesity?
  • If yes, do you think it could be the cause of liver failure?
  • In your family lineage, are there other people suffering from liver failure?
  • Which are the other factors that could lead to liver failure?
  • Are you on medication?
  • How often do you go for checkup?
  • Do doctors suggest any treatment for the disease?
  • If yes, which are some of the liver failure treatments available?
  • How do you cope with the disease?
  • Are you on a special diet?
  • According to your opinion what can be done to prevent the rising cases of liver failure among the adult patients.

Ethics in data collection

In order to ensure ethics in data collection, the researcher should establish a set of rules and follow them regardless of the consequences of research. For example the researcher can establish a rule that he will be telling the truth regardless of the consequences or he will only collect information from people with their fully informed consent. Another way of making ethical decisions in research is to follow ethical guidelines but to use judgment far more than the rule based approach would allow. Using this approach will take account of the consequences of a particular course of action and judge whether the potential benefits of research outweigh the risks of the participants (Stake, 2010).

In order to ensure ethics in data collection the researcher should follow some principles. The first principle is that no harm should come to the respondents as result of their participation in the research. This is the primary ethical principle governing data collection and it overrides all other consideration. The second principle is that the respondent’s right to privacy should always be respected and no undue pressure should be brought to bear. That is, respondents are perfectly within their rights to refuse to answer questions without offering any explanation and they have the right to decide to whom and under what conditions the information can be made available. No information should be published about identifiable persons without their permission.

The third principle is that respondents should be provided with sufficient initial information about the research to be able to give their informed consent concerning participation and the use of the data. Providing true information about the extent to which answers will be held confidential as well as how and for what purpose the data will be used is a minimal requirement. Finally, in the last principle it is the researcher’s moral and professional obligation to maintain the level of confidentiality that was promised to the respondents at the onset. The researcher should make sure that he does not promise a higher degree of confidentiality than what can be achieved (Pope & Mays, 2006).

Data analysis

The researcher used constant comparative technique to analyze the data collected (Marshall & Rossman, 2010). This method involves going through the data again and again, comparing each element-phrase, sentence or paragraph with all of the other elements. The aim of this analysis method is to come up with themes that capture or summarize the contents of the data. This method also aims at developing a set of plausible generalizations describing phenomenon of study which is grounded in the data (Riordan, 2005). This method of data analysis involves the following steps:

Comparative assignment of incidents to categories

After the data have been prepared for analysis, the researcher puts each unit of analysis into a set of provisional categories. As each new unit is examined, it is compared to other units previously assigned to that category to see whether its inclusion is appropriate. If some units of analysis do not fit any pre-existing category, new classification may have to be created (Riordan, 2005). Units that fit into more than one category should be copied and included where relevant. Throughout the process, the emphasis is on comparing units and finding similarities among the units that fit into the category.

Elaboration and refinement of categories

In this stage, the researcher outlines specific rules used to explain the definition of each category, thereby creating a limit within the range of explanation for control purposes. These rules not only help to focus the study but also allow the researcher to start to explore the theoretical dimensions of the emerging category system (Riordan, 2005). The ultimate value of these rules, however, is that they reveal what one is learning about the chosen topic and help one to determine the research outcome.

Searching for relationships and themes among categories

The third phase of the method involves searching for relationships and common patterns across categories. The researcher examines the propositional statements and looks for meaningful connections. Some propositions are strong enough to stand alone while others might be related in several important ways. The goal of this phase is to come up with assertions that can explain and further clarify the phenomenon under study (Silverman, 2009).

Data and Theory Integration

All the results of the foregoing analysis are integrated in to some coherent explanation of the phenomenon (Riordan, 2005). The researcher attempts to offer a brief explanation but in sufficient detail to convey an idea of the scope of the project. The goal of this phase of the project is to arrive at an understanding of the people and events being studied. Liver is an important organ in the body and when liver failure occurs it fails to function properly. The other cause of liver failure is non-alcoholic liver disease. This includes a range of liver disorders which have similar features to alcoholic liver disorders but they occur in association with diabetes and obesity rather than alcohol. The rising cases of obesity in adults have resulted to increasing cases of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Liver failure can be treated through various ways. The first form of treatment is orthotropic liver transplant. The other liver treatment method is cellular therapeutics. The aim of cell therapy is to replace, repair or enhance the biological function of damaged tissues or organs which can be achieved by transplanting cells to the target organ in sufficient numbers.

Limitations of constant comparative technique

Constant comparative technique is tiresome and tedious way of analyzing data. The researcher has to come up with categories in order to classify different units to those categories. It is also confusing because some information may not relate to the categories developed (Merriam, 2009).

Response from the participant

For how long have you been suffering from liver failure?

I have been suffering from liver failure for the last three years. That is when the doctor after examination told me that my liver is not functioning properly. Before that I used to buy medicines over the counter to sooth the pain because I thought it was just a minor stomachache.

You have talked of three years so how did you realize that you were suffering from liver failure?

At one moment I got so sick. My eyes turned yellow, had a lot of pain and I could not eat. I was admitted to a hospital and the doctor suggested that my liver should be examined and the results were positive

Give some of the signs of a person suffering from liver failure

Due to frequent diarrhea and vomiting, one may become very weak to an extent that he or she may not be in a position to do anything that needs energy such as walking. The other symptom is bloating and distention and when it is very serious the person may also experience breathing problems. A person suffering from liver failure experiences excessive thirst which is followed by frequent urination. The color of the skin and eyes turn yellow. These may be accompanied by nausea, fever and breathing problems.

Which are the most common causes of liver failure?

The main cause of liver failure is alcohol. It results to development of fatty livers and the first sign of alcohol injury is degeneration. In serious cases, the liver may be enlarged, and become yellowish in color. Patients with fatty liver are usually asymptomatic though they may have mild elevations of liver enzyme levels in blood. Injury from drugs and toxins may also result to adult liver failure. Liver metabolizes and excretes most drugs and other exogenous compounds in large amount thus resulting to its damage. Over weight can also result to liver failure among the adults.

Liver disease may also be hereditary. This is as a result of defects in the genes which lead to iron accumulation in the liver thus causing cirrhosis. The small intestine absorbs iron but no excretory pathway particularly in men. All body iron reserves are stored in the liver, which is therefore affected directly by iron overload. Fully developed cases of iron deposits in the liver cause cirrhosis and this can lead to liver failure.

Have you ever taken alcohol?

Yes, before I was examined and found to have liver problem, I was a heavy alcohol drinker.

If yes, do you think it could be the cause of liver failure?

I think it could have played part to my liver problem because I was a frequent drinker. I would not eat properly but kept on drinking. At some point I would drink and then experience nausea, vomit and sometimes experience breathing problems.

Have ever suffered from obesity?

Yes, sometime back I was overweight due to my eating habits. I used to eat junk food which resulted to my increase in weight.

If yes, do you think it could be the cause of liver failure?

I think it could also have resulted to liver failure because the doctor said that it results to excess built up fat in the liver. This in turn results to inflammation which may lead to cirrhosis.

In your family lineage, are there other people suffering from liver failure?

No, there is no history of liver failure in my family.

Are you on medication?

Yes, I have to take tablets day in day out in order to check on my condition

How often do you go for checkup?

I go for checkups every two weeks for the doctor to examine whether my condition is improving or not.

Has any treatment been suggested?

Yes, my doctor says that if it fails to improve, I should try transplant.

If yes, are you conversant with these treatment criteria?

One of the most common treatment methods is orthotropic liver transplant, which is considered the most used approaches in the modern medical care. The patient goes through donor transplantation which involves removal of the right hepatic lobe from a health individual and transplantation in to an adult recipient. Very small adult patients may be transplanted with the smaller left hepatic lobe which usually has fewer risks to the donor.

The doctor also said that cellular therapeutics is also a method of liver treatment. The aim of cell therapy is to replace, repair or enhance the biological function of damaged tissues or organs which can be achieved by transplanting cells to the target organ in sufficient numbers. This helps them to survive long enough in order to restore the normal functions of organs and tissues.

The other liver treatment method that my doctor talked about is adult haematopoietic stem cell for hepatocyte.

How do you cope with the disease?

I have to attend checkups frequently and take medicine always. I also avoid involving myself with tiresome tasks and avoid walking for long.

Are you on a special diet?

Yes, am on special diet. My doctor recommended that I take milk thistle because it helps the liver to perform its normal functions. I also have to include dandelion root in my diet because it is very nutritious to the body organs. Artichoke is a bitter herb which I am also supposed to feed on because it prevents intoxication and infection of the liver. It also helps reduction of cholesterol and sugar in the blood as well as development of liver cells.

According to your opinion what can be done to prevent the rising cases of liver failure among the adult patients.

In order to cab the rising cases of liver failure among the adults, people should observe their lifestyle. Alcohol should be taken in moderate quantities because it is the leading cause of the disease. People should also observe their eating habits in order to avoid the cases of weight problems which result to fatty liver.

Conclusion

Qualitative research involves research techniques in which data is obtained from a relatively small group of respondents (Thomas & Nelson, 2005). It helps researchers to formulate their interpretations of the subject of their studies and give interpretations in order to add to a body of knowledge (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). This research paper has given a research approach using the phenomenological method on the study on liver failure among the adult patients.

Reference list

Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (2005). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. Chicago.SAGE.

Gerrish, K. & Lacey, A. (2010). The Research Process in Nursing. London. John Wiley & Sons.

Holloway, I. (2005).Qualitative Research in Health Care. Chicago. McGraw-Hill International.

Holloway, I., & Wheeler, S. (2009). Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare. Chicago. John Wiley and Sons.

Kelly, D. (2008). Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System in Children. Chicago. Wiley Blackwell.

Mann, B. (2006). Selected Styles in Web-Based Educational Research. Boston. Idea Group Inc.

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. (2010). Designing Qualitative Research. Chicago. SAGE.

Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative research: a guide to design and implementation. Chicago.John Wiley and Sons.

Pope, C., & Mays, N. (2006). Qualitative Research in Health Care. London. Wiley-Blackwell.

Riordan, J. (2005). Breastfeeding and human lactation. Chicago. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sargent, S. (2009). Liver Diseases: An Essential Guide for Nurses and Health Care Professionals. Chicago. John Wiley and Sons.

Silverman, D. (2009). Doing Qualitative Research. Chicago. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Speziale, H., & Carpenter, D. (2007). Qualitative research in nursing: advancing the humanistic imperative. Boston. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Stake, R. (2010). Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work. New York. Guilford Press.

Thomas, J., & Nelson, J. (2005). Research methods in physical activity. Chicago. Human Kinetics.

Appendix

Critical analysis

This method of interviewing is a useful one because it helps one to collect information without losing any significant detail. It also helps to capture rich information, to develop and confirm the text for the theoretical model and to enhance the validity of a qualitative questionnaire survey method. This interview method provides rich information and it

Response from the participant

For how long have you been suffering from liver failure?

I have been suffering from liver failure for the last three years but I used to take pain killers because I thought it was a minor stomachache

  • Suffered for three years
  • Treated the symptoms by purchasing medicine over the counter

The doctor examined him also provides the researcher and the audience with the felt shared experience of the participants. However, conducting this kind of interview requires skills on the part of the interviewer. The interviewer needs to

You have talked of three years, so how did you realize that you were suffering from liver failure?

I was admitted to a hospital and the doctor suggested that my liver should be examined and the results were positive

  • The eyes turned yellow
  • Felt a lot of pain
  • Admitted in the hospital and tested be sensitive to the questions he is asking the participant and should also ensure that the participant is comfortable.

Give some of the signs of a person suffering from liver failure

Due to frequent diarrhea and vomiting, one may become very weak. The other symptom is bloating and distention, experiences excessive thirst which is followed by frequent urination. One may also experience nausea, fever and breathing problems.

  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Yellow eyes and skin
  • Nausea and breathing problems
  • Thirst and frequent urination

Which are the most common causes of liver failure?

The main cause of liver failure is alcohol. Over weight can also result to liver failure among the adults because it results to fatty liver

Liver disease may also be hereditary. This is as a result of defects in the genes which lead to iron accumulation

  • Alcohol- It results to development of fatty livers and the first sign of alcohol injury is degeneration
  • Overweight- results to fatty liver
  • Genes- Liver disease may also be hereditary in the liver thus causing cirrhosis.

Have you ever taken alcohol?

Yes,

If yes, do you think it could be the cause of liver failure?

I think it could have played part to my liver problem

  • drinker.
  • I would not eat properly but kept on drinking.
  • At some point I would drink and then experience nausea, vomit and sometimes experience breathing problems.

Have you ever suffered from obesity?

Yes

  • Sometime back I was overweight due to my eating habits.
  • I used to eat junk food which resulted to my increase in weight.

If yes, do you think it could be the cause of liver failure?

I think it could also have resulted to liver failure

In your family lineage, are there other people suffering from liver failure?

  • The doctor said that over weight results to excess built
  • No

How often do you go for checkup?

I go for checkups every two weeks

Are you on medication?

yes

Has the doctor suggested any treatment?

Yes,

The doctor has to frequently examine whether my condition is improving or not

The doctor has suggested liver transplant

If yes, are you conversant with other treatment available?

One of the most common treatment methods is orthotropic liver transplant. The doctor also said that cellular therapeutics is also a method of liver treatment. The other liver treatment method that my doctor talked about is adult haematopoietic stem cell for hepatocyte.

  • Liver transplant- The patient goes through donor transplantation which involves removal of the right hepatic lobe from a health individual and transplantation in to an adult recipient.
  • Cellular therapeutics- The aim of cell therapy is to replace, repair or enhance the biological function of damaged

How do you cope with the disease?

Keep fit and follow the doctor’s prescription

  • attend checkups frequently
  • Take medicine always.
  • Avoid involving myself with tiresome tasks and avoid walking for long.

Are you on a special diet?

Yes, am on special diet. I take milk thistle, Artichoke and dandelion.

  • Milk thistle- it helps the liver to perform its normal functions. I also have to include dandelion root in my diet because it.
  • Dandelion root- is very nutritious to the body organs.
  • Artichoke- a bitter herb which I am also supposed to feed on because it prevents intoxication and infection of the liver. It also helps reduction of cholesterol and sugar in the blood as well as development of liver cells.

According to your opinion what can be done to prevent the rising cases of liver failure among the adult patients.

In order to cab the rising cases of liver failure among the adults, people should observe their lifestyle. Alcohol should be taken in moderate quantities because it is the leading cause of the disease. People should also observe their eating habits in order to avoid the cases of weight problems which result to fatty liver.

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